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How does the perpetual existence of Great Powers challenge the idea that states interact in an anarchic international environment?

In this paper, I seek to demonstrate that the perpetual existence of great powers do not challenge the idea of international environment that is anarchic. This means, in international relation terms, that states seek to increase their economic and military power at all costs. This is due to an international system that is a self-help system where states must survive by acquiring power in all its forms in order to continue to exist in a ruthless international environment. Throughout this paper there will be international relations scholars mentioned such as John J Mearsheimer from the Realist school of thought; Structuralist’s such as Headley Bull; the Defensive Realist, Kenneth Waltz, .By using international relations theory when discussing international politics I shall demonstrate that the existence of great powers does not challenge the idea that states interact in an anarchic international environment.

The classical realist Edward Hallent Carr (1939) put forward a theory in international relations which had Marxist traditions from the politics of the era that he was writing, at the end of the First World War; his most famous published work was the 20 Years Crisis from 1919 to 1939. Carr’s theory demonstrated that an international environment is where states seek to overturn the current international order such as the revisionist powers; these were the axis powers: Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan and Mussolini’s Italy. Carr also argued that in an international system, great powers do not challenge the existence of an anarchic environment because they seek to create their own utopias: all great powers want to create their own utopia in an international system, which will-for a time-be dominated by a particular doctrine. Great powers seek more power and dominance in an international system that is anarchic.

“it will not be difficult to show that the utopian, when he preaches the doctrine of the harmony of interests, is innocently and unconsciously adopting Walewski maxim, and clothing his own interests in the guise of a universal interest for the purpose of imposing it on the rest of the world.[1]

This demonstrates that great powers in an international environment, is a system of self-help and anarchy states will seek to put forward the agenda to create their own utopia. This can be supported by Booth (1991) who argued that utopianism and the realist school of thought uses a combination of utopianism and realism to understand great powers and the international environment because

“ ‘combination’ of utopian and reality, the ‘coordination’ or ‘unease compromise’ of power and morality, the importance of basing fought on ‘elements’ of both utopia and reality, and he describes politics and law as a ‘meeting place’ for ethics and power.[2]

Therefore, this shows that in an international environment with great powers that idea of an anarchy will not be challenged by Great Powers however great powers will seek to impose or cooperate in a manner that helps to create international stability. But international environment is still one of ruthlessness and an anarchy just without the conflicts on the scale of two world wars in the 20th century. Also, the goal of Utopia being achieved by a great power is referring to a state ability to achieve power hegemony either within a region spear of influence or a global influence that is becoming a global hegemony. The idea of Utopia in terms of an international environment that is anarchic refers to a state there exists were a dominant ideology seeks to dominate the system and dictate the conduct of the international environment. For example, the Woodrow Wilson and the consensus of the great powers at the end of the First World War never to have conflict again because of the predominant belief that the war was caused by the actions of a few and not the nature of an anarchic international environment. Therefore, there will always be effectual conflict because according to Carr there will always exist another generation seeking to upturn the current utopia and install their own view of conducting politics in an international environment that is anarchic and because of this there will always be conflict to maintain and change the status quo.

The ideas of Kenneth N waltz support the idea that great powers do not challenge that an anarchic environment of international politics, in fact according to Walt’s and “Morgenthau, example, thought of the “rational” statement as ever striving to accumulate more and more power[3]”. Therefore, with states gathering various forms of power in order to survive in an anarchic system demonstrates that with the existence of great powers will not prevent or eliminate the existence of international political environment that at its core is one of anarchy. What waltz provides is a theory which helps understand the anarchic environment of international politics which is that states seek to accumulate power that not risk destroying the current international system. The present system in the mid-20th and 21st century is dominated in the consensus brought about at the end of the Second World War with the development of the United Nations to bring order and peace to an anarchic environment. However, “governments, however, have a monopoly on the legitimate use of force, and legitimate here means that public agents are organised to prevent and to counter the private use of force… A national system is not one of self-help. The international system is.[4]” Due to the fact that states have a monopoly on violence means that great powers do not challenge the idea of an international environment that is anarchic even though great powers exist and interact in an anarchic environment. But waltz is a structural realist and a defensive realist meaning he supports the idea that states will see to maximise their power because of the nature of the international environment but they will not seek chaos and warfare to the extent experienced in the 20th century. However international politics is still an anarchic because superpowers and lesser powers will always continue to jockey for power and influence because the nature of an act environment is to provide security and the continued existence of one stay for the accumulation of more power. But even with the accumulation of more power according to Walt’s the state seeking to increase one’s power will only be to improve one’s own nation security. That security will not be at the expense of one’s own rival unless that rival threatens to jeopardise that states security and position in the international hierarchy, examples of that happening is the Peloponnesian War were Sparta seem to prevent that the Athenians from dominating Greece and more contemporary examples could be viewed with Russian aggression in Ukraine and Georgia, as an attempt to stabilise and increase Russian power after the Cold War. This can be viewed with waltz theory of defensive realism not one of total aggression and seeking of power but that state interactions are given by the nature and environment of international politics and the great powers do not challenge this idea in fact great powers only seek to deepen and intensify rivalry. The reason for this is if all states possessed the same amount of power and there will be no international environment that is anarchic but because some states are greater than others will inevitably to anarchic because of the nature of a self-help system.

The offensive realist John J Mearsheimer portrays international environment where states manoeuvre for power in order to hopefully become the world’s most dominant superpower and therefore becoming a unipolar power meaning all other states could not possibly threaten one of powerful state. Mearsheimer also was for the argument that “United Kingdom and France, still harbour deep-seated, albeit muted fears that a Germany unchecked by American power management behave aggressively[5]”. Therefore, Mearsheimer demonstrates that the perpetual existence of great powers and superpowers do not affect the idea that states interact in an anarchic environment in fact it could be described great powers fuel the interaction between the state and an anarchic international environment. This can be shown in the fact that “Mearsheimer also offers striking new insights into balance of power theory, the role of geography, and the debate over land power this airpower and naval power[6]”. These insights are the idea that great powers are destined to clash in order to create a new international order or to merely overtake the existing international structure that being the current balance of powers in order to reshape a new international environment. An example of a restructuring of the nature of power in an anarchic environment caused by great powers is the end of the Napoleonic wars the creation of the Council of Europe in 1815 and the creation of the league at the end of the First World War as well as the development of the UN structure at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. However, with the change of international order from a multipolar world in the 19th century to a bipolar world in the mid-20th during the Cold War as well as a unipolar world in the 90s and present day international divisions and rivalries could be described as a world becoming multipolar. Which in international relations terms means world with a snow hegemony but rather there are several powers either coexisting or vying to dominate the global international system. But no matter the form of government geopolitics the international environment will still remain anarchic and great powers will not challenge the idea of states and interaction in an anarchic humour. That is because states will always seek to maximise power in a self-help system and therefore there will always be new powers trying to overthrow the existing order not necessaryfor violence but the international environment will still remain anarchic.

Another theory that can be used to show that the existence of great powers does not challenge the idea of an anarchic international environment where states interact this can be understood with constructionists theories developed by Hedley Bull and Alexander Wendt. Both scholars put forward an argument that is not merely states actors that interact in an anarchic environment that culture plays a part in the interaction between great powers and overstates of lesser power. Alexander Wendt developed his argument to demonstrate

 “To see this it is useful to consider three reasons why actors may observe cultural norms: because they are forced to, because it is in their self-interests, and because they perceive the norms as legitimate. These explanations correspond roughly to neorealists, neoliberal, and idealist (constructivists?) Theories of “the different that norms make”in international life, and perhaps for that reason they are often seen as mutually exclusive.[7]

Therefore, because there are social norms in society there are also international norms that become embedded in international agreements such as you chat and tune rights and the settlement of the United Nations which preserves a particular kind of peace and that is the existing borders at the end of the Second World War. Norms also mean in an international social context according to Hedley Bull “influence of the system and the nature of the state in the determination of the events, about the right of states to intervene in each other’s affairs and so on.[8]

This means the existence of international norms and embedded norms shows that there is argument to be made that great powers challenge the idea of states interactions in an anarchic environment. However, despite the existence of norms and structures that are developed to limit the damage caused and inflicted upon between states because of the nature of the international system. That does not mean that the existence of great powers challenge the idea that states interact in an anarchic environment because norms are never truly embedded because the international system is an anarchic and no state according to the UN can be dictated to because states are free and independent actors and no state can be forced to obey commands of more powerful states by international norms. However even with international norms they remain on embedded because they are no actors in the international environment that are above the independence and power of states even with the existence of great powers does not challenge the anarchic environment that states interact in. This is because great powers also interact in an anarchic environment and seek to maintain the position as great powers and therefore will only contribute to the nature of interactions between states in an anarchic environment this can be seen in the nature of the Cold War and present rivalries today between great powers such as the United States, Japan and Russia, China. Therefore rivalries between great powers and lesser powers only demonstrate that the only permanent norm and structure to the anarchic environment is the nature of anarchy itself in the international environment even with the existence of such institutions as the UN that seeks to bring about the end of interstate conflict.

The interaction of great powers does not challenge the idea that states interact in an anarchic environment because even with the existence of great powers there’s always been rivalry and conflict that does not require the existence of great powers. Also, states interact my other means of violence such as global commerce and other nonlethal means of interaction but in terms of international politics the political environment is one of anarchy and will state must be self-sufficient in order to survive. The existence of great powers demonstrates clearly in their rivalries such as the ones can be understood presently and “increasingly formidable coalition of illiberal powers China, Iran, and Russia-is determined to undo the post-Cold War settlement and the US led global order that stands behind it[9]”. Also, the rivalry between Iran and Iraq and the burning conflict in the Middle East between Islamic fundamentalism and the idea of a liberal or tolerant society is being waged which has in terms of international environment is to do with the interaction and rivalries between states but great power’s not challenge this idea and in fact this can be viewed not as originally globally because

“Whether it is Russia forces seizing Crimea, China making aggressive claims in its coastal waters, Japan responded with an increasingly assertive strategy of its own, or Iran try to use its alliance with Syria and Hezbollah to dominate the Middle East, old-fashioned power plays are back in international relations.[10]

This in fears that great powers do not affect the idea of an anarchic environment because states with a be great powers or the lesser powers such as Iran and Saudi Arabia states still fundamentally interact in an anarchy environment with this seek to pursue their own rational self-interests. That being to pursue their own national goals to further their interests and survival by accumulating more power at their rival’s expense. Therefore, a return to a state of international politics to a similar multipolar error such which existed in the 19th century were the great powers of Europe Britain, France, Germany and Austria Hungary and the present day multipolar order that is shaping is the European Union, the United States, China, India and Russia. This return to a multipolar world can only enforce the nature of an anarchic environment was states interact in great powers do not challenge this idea because multiple great powers will perhaps lead to a similar state of anarchy that which existed in the 19th century were states use all means necessary to acquire power and weaker rivals leading to an international environment were the old rules no longer apply. Those rules being simply the old Cold War divides and the triumphs of Western dominance in the 1990s shows were the is a vacuum of great power or if there are multiple great powers they will lead to increased international conflict until more powers rise to fill the vacuum that will simply lead to strengthening the idea that states exist in an anarchic environment and that great powers do not resolve a self-help system.

Finally, in this paper I hope to have demonstrated how the perpetual existence of great powers does not challenge the idea that states interact in an anarchic international environment in contrary great powers make no difference when it comes to the anarchic nature of the international environment. However great powers do create international order that is temporary but the international system is still anarchic this can be seen through the conflict throughout the Cold War between the superpowers the United States and Soviet Union and colour conflicts in the Middle East and Russian aggression in Ukraine. Which only further demonstrates that great power not prevent the interaction of states in an anarchic environment because there is no more powerful actors than states and they are autonomous and there is no power is capable to dictate to a state. Therefore, great powers do not challenge the existence and idea that states interact in an anarchic environment.


Watch 1000 years of European border change, online

Morris Justin, From ‘Peace by Dictation’ to International Organisation: Great Power Responsubility and the Creation of the United Nations, Published online 21 August 2013:

Waltz N. Kenneth, The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Online

Waltz N. Kenneth, Theory of International Politics, Published by Waveland Press 2010

Mearsheimer J. John, The Tragedy of Great Power Power Politics, published by Nortan paperback 2003

 Snyder H Glenn, Mearsheimer’s Worl-Offensive Realism and the Struggle for Security: A Review Essay, Online


Booth Ken, Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory  and Practice, Online http//www,

Hilderband c. Robert, Dumbarton Oaks the Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Post-war Security, Published in 1990 by The University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill and London

Wendt Alexander, Social Theory of International Politics, First Published by CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1999

ORDER AND VOLENCE Hedley Bull and International Relations, Edited by J. D. B. Miller and R. J. Vinvent 

Ikenberry G John, The Illusion of Geopolitics, Online PDF

Mead Russel Walter, The Return of Geopolitics The Revenge of the Revisionist Powers, Online PDF


History Peloponnesian War, Online


[2] Page 531 Booth Ken, Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory  and Practice, Online http//www,

[3] Page 616 Waltz N. Kenneth, The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Online

[4] Page 104 Waltz N. Kenneth, Theory of International Politics, Published by Waveland Press 2010

[5] Page 2 Mearsheimer J. John, The Tragedy of Great Power Power Politics, published by Nortan paperback 2003

[6] Page 7 Snyder H Glenn, Mearsheimer’s Worl-Offensive Realism and the Struggle for Security: A Review Essay, Online

[7] Page 250 Wendt Alexander, Social Theory of International Politics, First Published by CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1999

[8] Page 117 ORDER AND VOLENCE Hedley Bull and International Relations, Edited by J. D. B. Miller and R. J. Vinvent

[9] Page 80 Ikenberry G John, The Illusion of Geopolitics, Online PDF

[10] Page 69 Mead Russel Walter, The Return of Geopolitics The Revenge of the Revisionist Powers, Online PDF

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How effective is the work of IMPRESS?

IMPRESS (Independent Media and Press Regulator) was created in the wake of the News of the world scandal in 2011 and the reason for this creation was the goal of creating an independent review body of the press without links to government in order that this new organisation will be untainted. However, the creation of IMPRESS has become criticised because in some theatres it is viewed as an organisation based to protect the press rather than being completely independent and has a membership of forty-five press organisations and therefore it cannot be viewed with unbiased interest. When discussing the effectiveness of IMPRESS, it is necessary to consider its history and to include examples of poor journalism and the responsibilities of the press, the media and of journalists. It also must be understood the effects of development of the World Wide Web and alternative source of communication and information such as social media sites and other alternative sources. This essay will focus on two aspects and how effective and how unaffected IMPRESS really is as an organisation and whether or not IMPRESS is fit for purpose in this new technologically advanced age. Ultimately it will be understood throughout the essay as an organisation IMMPRESS is limited goals and capabilities is in fact successful at meeting these. However, conclusively throughout the work you will see that IMPRESS is not up to purpose for its task to regulate the media because the organisation does not possess the necessary resources to successfully reach the goal of ethical journalism which served public good because it was not created to facilitate the needs of a far more diverse media environment with alternative sources of information also the necessary laws and powers do not exist because journalism and certain areas of the media do not have professions. Therefore, cannot be regulated to same standards which do exist in organisations such as police force teaching institutions and other professional organisations.

The creation of Impress was sparked by the news in Spring 2011 (News International) began publicly admitting liability and paying compensation to people whose phones the News of the World had tapped, including that of murdered Milly Dowler. This resulted in the News of the World ceasing publication. Lord Leveson, a senior judge, was appointed in 2011 to conduct an inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the press. In 2012 he issued a damning report that recommended replacing the old Press Complaints Commission (PCC). He also called for a new body to help set up a replacement, and The Press Recognition Panel (PRP) was established.  The Press Recognition Panel (PRP) is an independent body set up to ensure that any organisation which regulates the press is independent, properly funded and able to protect the public, while recognising the important role carried out by the press. On 8 September 2014, instead of completely closing, the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) rebranded itself and the PCC was replaced by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO), whilst retaining most of the features that the Leveson Inquiry had wanted to get removed. At the same time a new group was being formed called IMPRESS. Unlike IPSO, this organisation was not going to be funded the same way as IPSO.  This would be a fully independent body, to ensure that it followed the recommendations of Leveson. IMPRESS has caused friction with the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) and the big national titles, who are mostly owned by the same publishing groups, plus also the regional papers, by challenging IPSO’s control of the regulation of the UK Press. IMPRESS, as of October 2016 became the UK’s first officially recognised press regulator after its application for Royal Charter recognition was granted, in a move backed by many campaign groups and the National Union of Journalists (NUJ). IPSO, with the help of The News Media Association – which represents many of the largest IPSO members – requested a ‘judicial review’ on the grounds that “That is not what Leveson or those drafting the Charter intended.”, the case was rejected by the High Court, a decision IPSO intend to appeal. As a recognised regulatory body, all members of Impress will now be immune from exemplary damages in libel and privacy cases and from the cost shifting element of Section 40 of the Crime and Courts Act if it ever comes into force. See Section 40, Crime and Courts Act 2013. By looking at the development and the duration of IMPRESS which is addressed in this paragraph it can be understood that IMPREES is a reactionary force to monitor the press and to develop a culture of ethical journalism. However instead IMPRESS being a proactive force in the media and press it is an organisation that is underdeveloped and not fit the purpose in this new modern age with alternative sources of information and the means to gather and communicate a new story. Therefore, it must strongly be at that IMPRESS does not have the necessary tools because there is not exist a political environment they can adequately combat this issue. This due to the political community throughout this decade in United Kingdom have been focused on Scottish referendum 2014 and the outcome of the 2016 and the British voting to leave the European Union. With the decision to leave the European Union and the brakes negotiations as well as the political fallout in Scotland of the Scottish referendum which has led to the collapse of the Labour Party in Scotland this is relevant to the whole question because with the political community focused on leaving European Union and fighting to keep United Kingdom. Therefore, this means that the required political energy and resources will not be used to properly regulate the press and the new media because it requires new and imaginative decision-making.

IMPRESS, the regulator which was created to be independent after the phone hacking scandal in 2011 was created in hopes that new independent body will be admired and respected as a regulator that was independent without government involvement. With the Plans to set up a new press watchdog by Royal Charter were backed in 2013 by Mr Cameron, the Prime Minister at the time, and the UK’s other main party leaders at the time, Ed Miliband Labour and Nick Clegg Liberal Democrats , but the press rejected them and formed its own regulator, the Independent Press Standards Organisation (Ipso). The Press Recognition Panel (PRP) was set up under the same Royal Charter to ensure that regulators of the UK’s press were independent, properly funded and able to protect the public. Its main role is to consider applications from press regulators that want to be recognised as being effective. However

“The system of a Press Recognition Panel under which the regulator Impress operates amounts to state regulation in all but name,[1]” writes Alasdair Murray

The legitimacy and liability public respect Impress needs to maintain in order to reassure the British public that the press has been properly monitored and that their rights and freedom of information is respected. Also, the concerns of the press have to be respected in order for the British public to have access to informed and accurate news especially in the age of fake news and mis-information where there is information overload and which can lead to factual issues to be confused and started. For example, the recent alleged Russian attempted assassination of former Russian spy Sergei V. Skripal and his daughter, Yulia Skripal. This example is good to demonstrate the importance of a press that is well regulated and can provide the public with correct and reliable information particularly in age of information overload and the press being undermined by the phone hacking scandal and political leaders such as President Donald Trump, ex-UKIP leader Nigel Farage in which the commonly used phrase “fake news” is being used undermined press both in the UK and globally.

A way IMPRESS is effective is in the goal or rather the side-effect of IMPRESS is to create an environment where the public can have faith in the reporting of the news and where bad practices such as the use of false identities by Mazher Mohammed investigator editor of the News of the world who had dressed as an Arabian business on a number of occasions carry out stings by gathering narcotics in order to sell to celebrities such as R and B singer Tulisa Contostavlos. It was these methods used by Mazher Mohammed known as the fake Sheikh that was in breach of the National union of journalist’s code of conduct which states that

“Obtains material by honest, straightforward and open means, with the exception of investigations that are both overwhelmingly in the public interest and which involve evidence that cannot be obtained by straightforward means[2]”.

It is in the spirit of the Western media to follow the code of conduct by the National union of journalists when it comes to conducting and gathering information in a manner that benefits the public good. This effect by the new independent press regulator is affecting because the effect is to restore public trust in the press especially in an age where the public attitude to the press and mainstream media is at an all-time low. This has led the public to alternative sources particularly satire such as in USA The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Last Week Tonight with John Oliver and in the United Kingdom Have I Got News For You and Mock The Week. With attitudes to politicians, the media and the press, as well as news organisations, at a low after the phone hacking scandal in 2011 the work of IMPRESS is relevant and important because with the public in UK seeking alternative forms of information this can lead to the same kind of environment as in the United States where talk show hosts are far more respected than US media organisations such as Fox News and CNN. With the publics in the United States and the UK using more alternative sources of information such as Facebook and non-Western media such as China today and the Russian propaganda network RT it is vital that the work of the new regulator and its effect stem the tide of the erosion of trust between the public and media and news organisations so that the British people have access to factual information that is un-tainted.

A way that IMPRESS is not effective is the fact that the way the public consumes media is no longer through the news through organisations such as Channel 4 News, BBC news and ITV rather the public particularly the younger generations get the information from non-traditional sources. For example, Youtube, Facebook, Twitter, online websites and other non-traditional sources also in age of iPhones individuals are now self-journalists such as people reporting on their phones during the start of the Arab spring in Tunisia in 2010 as well as public being able to film and record information and click news at the touch of a mobile phone. According to Rick Kennedy of the University of Virginia and Kerem Ozkan of new College of Florida with these new sources of media new methods are required to effectively regulate the press they stated that

“journalism shifts away from print and traditional newsroom structures in the new media age.[3]

So in response to the change in the way information is concerned they advocated more of a link between the American peoples and the media in order to be effective in regulating producing news benefits the American public they stated that

“we argue that media ombudsmanship does not go far enough in giving voice and visibility to the work of critiquing media performance, responding to media consumers, and interacting with community.[4]

Rick Kennedy of the University of Virginia and Kerem Ozkan of new College of Florida also propose a solution where

“promoting the idea of new media accessibility as a communitarian ideal-grassroots lobbying to remedy wrongs-may be the key to gaining wider acceptance and participation, from the public and from the press, of an ombudsman[5]”.

By looking at this recommendation by Rick Kennedy and Kerem Ozkan we can see an effective alternative all-round improvement to IMPRESS could be achieved instead of using outdated, traditional methods for example ­the ombudsman, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights. The ombudsman is usually appointed by the government or by parliament, but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries an inspector general, citizen advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman, and may also be appointed by a legislature. Below the national level an ombudsman may be appointed by a state, local or municipal government. Unofficial ombudsmen may be appointed by, or even work for, a corporation such as a utility supplier, newspaper, NGO, or professional regulatory body. But instead of this more traditional form IMPRESS will be far more effective if it became truly independent not supported by a Royal Charter. but rather a strong relationship and dialogue between the British public and media to ensure the return of public trust.

Another effective way IMPRESS is highly effective is that its goal is to ensure that the British public have access to quality information in order to make informed and qualified decisions by looking at the American’s first amendment we can use this to compare to the British system. This is because the difficulties that arise in this new modern technologically advanced age where

“advocates of a free press traditional point to 1st amendment ideal of an unrestricted marketplace of ideas where the open discussion of public affairs can take place; they demand a hands-off approach.[6]

But in the United Kingdom with is a different political and a slightly less capitalist and free-market attitude to the economy and also in how the press is regulated and monitored by the government. With this understanding we can speculate that one of the important effects of IMPRESS is that having a semi-independent regulator to monitor the press helps to ensure freedom of the press and its integrity because of the;

“finding this traditional approach inadequate to meet the realities of modern mass media, fair press forces have advocated a legal right of access to news media. Advocates of enforce access argue that the first amendment is primarily meant to provide for full debate of issues of public import so that the citizenry can make informed decisions.[7]

This demonstrates that despite the work of IMPRESS the long-standing political and the standing of traditional media outlets have been and are under a state of long-term political decay and mistrust from the British public which is arguably in the case of the United Kingdom since the end of the Suez crisis in 1956. In contrast, in the United States where ex-president Johnson repeatedly stated that the Americans were not going to be involved in war in Vietnam which turned out to be a conflict that lasted from 1964 until American withdrawal in the 70s. With the Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973 to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. By understanding the context and the historical and political relevance of how the public attitude to the political community and the elites that govern we can understand how the public been repeatedly let down and lied to is that public trust must be restored. By looking at the works of E.H Carr author of (The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919-1939) in which he makes the argument that every generation will tear down by revolution or coming into power the order of their current political leaders or to a degree their parents. This is relevant to the question “how effective the work of IMPRESS is” because the view in this essay is that IMPRESS shall fulfill its intended purpose to adequately regulate the mainstream press however it will fail either through lack of resources and lack of regulation to regulate new media sources such as Facebook and Twitter which are traditionally resistant to such regulation.

A drawback on how effective IMPRESS is that the Press Recognition Panel gives alternative press regulator Impress Royal Charter backing as well as in 2015, IMPRESS entered into an agreement with the IPRT (Independent Press Regulation Trust) for £3.8m in funding over a four-year period. This can be perceived as government control over the media affecting its independence because despite being a supposedly independent organisation IMPRESS and guarantees by Walter Merricks CBE, Chair of IMPRESS, said in a public speech at the LSE on 20 January 2016

 “‘we are not and never will be beholden to anyone, and we can never be in a position where our funding could be removed if we offended a funder.’[8]

However, this can be viewed as government control by stealth or by influence of IMPRESS which undermines its legitimacy and his aims to regulate the press and ensure the code of conduct is one that serves the public as well as protecting journalists. But IMPRESS put in safeguards in order to safeguard IMPRESS’s regulatory independence, it is crucial to put a firewall in place between IMPRESS and any donors. The IPRT grant can only be withdrawn in exceptional circumstances (for instance, if IMPRESS goes bankrupt) and there is no capacity for any donor to exert influence on IMPRESS. Despite the government grant and the fact that IMPRESS has a charter is can still maintain its independence however perception can be far more damaging than reality because without the confidence of the public work of IMPRESS to restore trust will be surely undermined and will lead to the ultimate goal to be undermined.

Journalism did not develop in a vacuum rather journalism evolved from propaganda and spinning news stories and information to suit political elites (Jonathan Sumption, volume 1 trial by battle the 100 years’ war) in this work he makes the argument of the purpose of propaganda. This is useful in understanding the work of IMPRESS and how journalism developed and how journalism and the rise in literacy help to create a free media with the development of the printing press in the 16th century as well as the Protestant Reformation and the use of the English word which helped to spread means of communication. Along with the development and rise of the penny press in the 18th century which helped to create an environment where

“journalists should be honest, fair and courageous ingathering, reporting and interpreting information.[9]

It is also accurate to state that the goal of IMPRESS and its effect is to minimise harm by showing compassion and that when viewing the children and the vulnerable is that the public is protected and not harmed such as the phone hacking scandal in 2011 and practices by people such as the fake Sheikh. And other effects of IMPRESS are to:

“recognise that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into any one’s privacy.[10]

therefore, the commission argued that one of the most important effects of IMPRESS is to change the working culture of the media to focus more on journalism not pursuing a story that is detrimental or harmful to the public but rather for the public good.

The impartiality of IMPRESS board members can be clearly demonstrated:

Board Members of IMPRESS (

  • Walter Merricks CBE (Chair) was the first Chief Ombudsman of the Financial Ombudsman Service, with responsibility for an organisation of 1,500 staff and a £90m budget. He has just completed a six-year term as a member of the board of the Gambling Commission and has been involved in dispute resolution and regulation in the fields of legal services, healthcare, insurance, energy and intellectual property, among others. He has also worked as a legal journalist and academic.
  • Deborah Arnott (Board Member) is Chief Executive of Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), which has a reputation as one of the UK’s most effective campaigning charities. She was awarded the Alwyn Smith prize by the Faculty of Public Health for her role in getting the ban on smoking in public places.
  • Iain Christie (Board Member) is a mediator, facilitator and actor with a background as a barrister in human rights and media law. After 17 years at the media and entertainment law chambers 5RB, he is now an Associate Member of 4-5 Gray’s Inn Square, having previously served as a legal adviser in HM Diplomatic Service. Iain is joint Consultant Editor of Tugendhat and Christie: The Law of Privacy and the Media and Secretary of the Civil Mediation Council.
  • Martin Hickman (Board member) is a journalist and publisher who is passionate about press freedom and ethics. He is managing director of a publishing house, Canbury Press, which specialises in contemporary non-fiction books.
  • Emma Jones (Board Member) is a writer and journalist. She is a regular columnist and reporter and interviewer for The New European. Emma is a former editor of Smash Hits magazine.
  • David Leigh (Board Member) is Anthony Sampson professor of reporting at City, University of London. Until he retired from the paper in 2013, he was investigations editor at The Guardian for 13 years. In a journalism career spanning over 40 years he also worked for The Observer, The Times, The Scotsman, Granada TV, Thames TV and the Washington Post.
  • Máire Messenger Davies (Board Member) is Emerita Professor of Media Studies at Ulster University. After working as a journalist on UK regional newspapers and magazines, she gained a psychology PhD studying how people learn from television.
  • David Robinson (Treasurer and Senior Independent Board Member) is Non-Executive Director and Audit Committee Chair of Forester Life (UK), lay member of the Investigations Committee of the Chartered Accountants of Scotland and a Trustee of charity, ‘Changing the Chemistry’.
  • Patrick Swaffer (Board Member) is President of the British Board of Film Classification, the independent non-statutory body which provides trusted classification for film and video.
  • Andrea Wills (Board Member) has exceptional senior experience of broadcast journalism regulation, standard-setting, and investigating serious editorial failings both in the UK and Australia. She was Independent Editorial Adviser to the BBC Trust until its closure in April, investigating over 60 complaints about BBC content over 10 years.

By looking at this list of qualified professionals having spent decades working in the media and understanding the culture there is a strong argument made that the work of IMPRESS will be highly effective in changing the working culture that will need to focus more on good journalism ethics. Journalism is typically where a journalist serves the public good which may involve breaking the law to just break in a corruption scandal or a paedophile ring. In contrast by journalism is where

“a freelance reporter working for the News of the world entered a school to talk to pupils and staff about a story concerning a female pupils relationship with a teacher. The reporting allegedly claimed she was the cousin of the people. Was the story in the public interest? Did it is therefore justified the intrusion and deceit was it an unnecessary subterfuge?[11]

This example uses above is a clear demonstration from practices from News of the world in 1996 and this helps to clearly demonstrate how IMPRESS goal is to change the media culture to focus more on the public good. However, it must be argued that in age where newspapers are closing not opening because of new media sources this means that there will always be money for a sensational new story produced by means as used by the fake Sheikh rather than legitimate journalism.

Overall the effect of IMPRESS is limited because it only received government recognition in 2015 and there is a far stronger argument that the culture of the media was affected more by the scandal of phone hacking in 2011 and uncovering practices by the fake Sheikh which has altered the way the media operates. However, it can be argued that IMPRESS main effect is to promote a culture of ethical journalism which focuses on public good not on solely pursuit of the story. It is still relatively early to measure the effectiveness of IMPRESS. Following all the poor behaviours of the media, press and journalists, public opinion and awareness of them is still at an all-time low in the current political and social environment. It also must be understood that the effect of IMPRESS is further overall limited in its effect to restore public trust to journalism because in the current political climate mentioned in the paragraphs above and alluded to throughout the essay it must be understood that. Throughout the Western world there is an appetite for alternative sources of information and public trust been in institutions such as parliament, the Church of England and traditional news sources such as the BBC BS all-time low. Due to this environment and lack of public trust the overall effect of IMPRESS will be limited because organisation does not have the required funding of the resources to ultimately restore trust and faith in industry in the current environment. However, in this essay the essay does allude to the fact that change that IMPRESS gives to journalism particularly the industrial and more traditional journalism does have a qualified effect because of recent scandals has been need to change. Therefore, because the change of attitude the means necessarily have been facilitated in order to bring change to the industry. But ultimately overall IMPRESS is not very effective because this is the organisation created because of the response is practices of the News of the world and order to ensure journalist act ethically in the pursuit of the public good. With IMPRESS being created as a reactionary force not a force that was created to be proactive shows that there is the political will or the inclination in the current political climate to effectively regulate the press and the rest of the media.


Almagor-Cohen Raphael, SPEECH, MEDIA AND ETHICS: The Limits of Free Expression, Published by palgrave in 2001

Castle Stephen and MacFarquhar Neil, Ex-Russian Spy ‘Stable’ After Nerve Agent Attack in U.K., Published on March 8, 2018

Carr, E.H. (2016-12-02). The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919-1939: Reissued with a new preface from Michael Cox, Palgrave Macmillan UK. Kindle Edition.

Frost, Chris. Journalism Ethics and Regulation, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from hull on 28-04-29 13:47:09

Kenney Rick Ph.D. & Ozkan Kerem The Ethics Examiner and Media Councils: Improving Ombudsmanship and News Councils for True Citizen Journalism, 26:1, 38-55, DOI: 10.1080/08900523.2011.525188 , online

Moore. L Roy & Murry D. Michael, MEDIA LAW AND ETHICS, published by Routledge Reprinted in 2009

Mayhew Freddy, Press Recognition Panel gives alternative press regulator Impress Royal Charter backing, Published on OCTOBER 25, 2016, Online

Maras Steven, Objectivity in Journalism, first published in 2013 by POLITY Press

News of the World ‘hacked Milly Dowler phone’, Online Published in 4 July 2011

First official UK press regulator, Impress, approved, Online Published in 25 October 2016

Press regulator is ‘independent’, you say? That don’t Impress me much, Online Published in Letters Wed 25 Oct 2017 19.19 BST

UNJ National Union of Journalist, NUJ code of conduct, Online updated in 2011

Freedom of the Press, Edited by Eric Barendt, Published by ASHGATE reprinted in 2010

IMPRESS: The Independent Monitor for the Press CIC Report and financial statements For the year ended 31 March 2017, Online

IMPRESS: How we are funded, Online

Sumption Jonathan, Trial by Battle: The Hundred Years War Volume 1, Published by Faber and Faber in 1990 paperback edition in 1999

Wolff Michael, FIRE AND FURY INSIDE THE TRUMP WHITE HOUSE, Published by Little Brown in 2018

[1] Press regulator is ‘independent’, you say? That don’t Impress me much, Online Published in Letters Wed 25 Oct 2017 19.19 BST

[2] UNJ National Union of Journalist, NUJ code of conduct, Online updated in 2011

[3] Kenney  Rick Ph.D. & Ozkan Kerem The Ethics Examiner and Media Councils: Improving Ombudsmanship and News Councils for True Citizen Journalism, 26:1, 38-55, DOI: 10.1080/08900523.2011.525188 , online

[4] Page 5, Kenney  Rick Ph.D. & Ozkan Kerem The Ethics Examiner and Media Councils: Improving Ombudsmanship and News Councils for True Citizen Journalism, 26:1, 38-55, DOI: 10.1080/08900523.2011.525188 , online

[5] Page 6, Kenney  Rick Ph.D. & Ozkan Kerem The Ethics Examiner and Media Councils: Improving Ombudsmanship and News Councils for True Citizen Journalism, 26:1, 38-55, DOI: 10.1080/08900523.2011.525188 , online

[6] Page 141 & 142, Freedom of the Press, Edited by Eric Barendt, Published by ASHGATE reprinted in 2010

[7] Page 142, Freedom of the Press, Edited by Eric Barendt, Published by ASHGATE reprinted in 2010

[8] IMPRESS: How we are funded, Online

[9] Page 733. Moore. L Roy & Murry D. Michael, MEDIA LAW AND ETHICS, published by Routledge Reprinted in 2009

[10] Page 735. Moore. L Roy & Murry D. Michael, MEDIA LAW AND ETHICS, published by Routledge Reprinted in 2009

[11] Page 143. Frost Chris and Christ Frost, Journalism Ethics and Regulation, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Centrail, Created from hull on 28-04-29 13:47:09

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What is the most appealing and effective basis for a liberal ideology?

Liberal ideology is appealing both to the public and to academics, because it enables human beings to attain freedom and both in academic and economic institutions, as well as social and political freedoms along with legal freedoms and legislated institutions which is supported by the liberal views shared by the liberal John Locke who inspired the idea of separation of powers. Liberal ideology is so appealing to feminists and conservatives for it seeks to create independence and equality of opportunity however liberalism is also appealing and effective because of the different strands of liberalism such as libertarians, liberal conservatives and liberal socialists such as UK Labour Party and its third way.

Liberal ideology is an appealing and effective to a large extent because it enables society and individuals to make the most of their freedoms and achieve opportunity, which according to thinkers like Hayak that depriving of freedoms through nationalisation and socialist policies only seek to limit opportunities. Liberalism also helps to liberate women by providing opportunities due to the free market and globalisation provides more opportunities according to, Martha Nussbaum and her example were a woman is forced to work when her husband becomes disabled and thanks to the opportunities available and thanks to liberalism she is able, ‘In 1977, Saleha’s group husked paddy and cultivated potatoes and sugarcane. Under the Saleha’s leadership, the woman also attended BRAC’S Bangladesh rural advancement committee education programs.[1]’ This shows progress because liberal ideology enables the liberation of women due to more global opportunities and the effects of liberal ideology which are ‘ Many liberal thinkers have made compassion, care, and love and essential part of their normative program.[2]’ this is due to influence from liberal thinkers such as  John Stuart Mill and  the rise of modern liberalism, which is influenced by the rise of socialism and its development and one nation conservatism was combined with liberalism as the protection of property rights and the acceptance of the need for states to intervene were free markets fail because ‘ Human beings have a dignity that deserves respect from laws and social institutions. This idea has many origins in many traditions; by now it is at the core of modern liberal democratic thought and practice all over the world.[3]’ this is due to the notion of social responsibility meaning as individuals we are responsible not only for ourselves but also society as a whole because cooperation is necessary in the modern state because unlike a puerile list libertarian, liberalism in the 21st-century also incorporates a degree of intervention, providing it doesn’t interfere with human freedoms but merely extend the advantages.

Another reason why liberal ideology is effective and appealing is due to the need for civil liberties and freedoms, as well as political freedoms such as free speech to enable the development of a democratic and free society is ‘ necessary of the ‘liberty of the press’as one of the securities against corrupt or tyrannical government.[4]’ this enables freedom of four and expression which thereby enables developments and new ideologies to flourish. John Stuart Mill also talks about how the tyranny of the majority and tyranny in general limits creative growth and therefore continues the creation and the acceptance of mistakes over and over again. Liberal ideology when it comes to democratic institutions according to John Locke ‘while the legislature is supreme, Locke will not make it absolute, for ‘’there remains still in the people a supreme power to remove or alter the legislative, when they find the legislative act contrary to the trust reposed to them.’’… The supreme power which Locke reserves for the people is ‘’not as considered under any form of government’’: it is only a kind of potential reserves of power, to be exercised in an emergency when the government they have established fails to use its power for the public good.[5]’ this means that liberal ideology supports the development of the idea of separation of powers and that the state should not have too much authority and power to influence people’s lives, unless it is a state of ‘ Libertarians agree in supporting, at most, a minimal state. Specifically, ‘the night’s watchman state of classical liberal theory, limited to the function of protecting all its citizens against violence, theft, and fraud, and to the enforcement of contracts, and so on (Nozick 1974,26).[6]’ this turbine the state have the power to convict criminals and maintain social order that the same time preventing the state from infringing on our individual liberties, this thereby makes liberal ideology appealing it must not be confused with anarchism because John Locke did not want the state of endless rebellion merely the ability to change governments which a modern-day democratic and liberal society can now do to elections.

Liberal ideology is appealing and can be effective because of it continuation towards liberal constitutional reform which helps to create the modern day democratic state and according to Mill this process is that a ‘Governments cannot be constructed by premeditated design. They ‘are not made, but grown.[7]’ this is because the move towards liberalisation and democratic rule is one of slow progress through the centuries in order to avoid chaos and civil war, this can be shown in the development of the British democracy and the constitution since King John signed Magna Carta and due to John Locke’s influence on property rights and natural law in order to protect the rights to property and the individual, by submitting to a state that the protects society and its civil matters Mill described this as a process that can be seen through most monarchs in Europe in his error in the 19th century as well as the previous 18th century ‘If anyone requires to be convinced that speculative thought is one of the chief elements of social power, let him bethink himself of the age in which there was scarcely a throne in Europe was not filled by a Liberal and reform king, a liberal and reforming Emperor[8]’ this shows that liberal ideology has its roots in authoritarian regimes because there’s never been a democracy and state that grew out of another free society, but only a liberal society developed through the tyranny of dictators and the feudal system however Mill does make the point that individuals have the ability to speed up the process of a liberal and free society ‘to my mind this is one of the most tragically facts in all history. It is a bit of thought, how different a thing the Christianity of the world might have been, if the Christian faith had been adopted as the religion of the Empire under the auspices of Marcus Aurelius instead of those of Constantine.[9]’ this shows all societies are bound to the ideology of liberalism and what form it will take within a nation however this process is slow and time-consuming a result in internal conflict such as the English Civil War of the right of Parliament and the power of the monarchy. But liberal ideology could be almost seen as imperialistic cost has spread throughout the globe from Communist China to capitalist America and religious conservative states that exist in the Middle East, are all moving or reforming in order to improve the freedom and liberty of their citizens.

Liberal ideology is effective and appealing to minorities, because liberal ideology when it comes to social policy is one of progressive development and acceptance which can be seen with the legalisation of gay marriage in England in 2015 and the US and Northern Ireland in 2016. Liberal ideology helps promote and provide minorities whether they be racial or LGBT ‘(At no time did Steffan state that he had committed homosexual acts, nor was any evidence of such acts ever introduced.) After a hearing, Steffan was denied the right to graduate; it was judged that he had ‘’insufficient aptitude to become a commissioned officer in the Naval service.’’ Steffan brought suit against the Department of defence, arguing that the navy’ exclusion of homosexuals violates the Equal Protection Clause of the fifth Amendment.[10]’ this shows that liberal ideology helps to promote minorities providing a society has developed two point to enable them to have the freedom.

Finally, liberal ideology is effective and appealing because ideology out of all ideologies which exist, for instance socialism, conservatism, nationalism and patriotism liberal ideology is the only ideology which has been incorporated either to a large extent or a small extent these ideologies when it comes to economic policy or social policy. This makes liberal ideology both effective and appealing because this means that liberal ideology is the most dominant ideology apart from religion to influence human life and its institutions as well as development, this can all be matched by the religions of Abraham and Buddhism as well as Hinduism and its effects on its indigenous population. Liberal ideology is also most appealing and effective because liberal ideology can be interpreted and understood in several different forms of liberalism is understood both academically and socially into different liberal concepts and ideas, these are libertarianism which accepts a very limited state which does not interfere with the lives of the public the merely estate maintains order and protect the state and its citizens from foreign invaders another liberal ideology is liberal conservatism this is where the Conservatives that value independence and property rights have merged with liberalism which could now be reckoned to  19th century liberals such as William Gladstone Liberal Prime Minister and the effects of liberal conservatism in the late 20th century, more accurately referred to as the new right and free-market liberals which helped create the present day attitude to free-market and freedom. Such as rolling back the state and extension of opportunities and freedoms available. Liberal ideology is effective and appealing because democratic socialists now accept capitalism such as the UK Labour Party and other socialist parties that exist on the continent seeking far more liberal response to the will economy and is a reason why a Conservative response is now the dominant form of responding to the 2008 economic crash, because liberal ideology is dominant when it comes to economic policy which can be seen in Tony Blair’s third way and new Labour in the 1990s. Ultimately the reason why liberal ideology is effective and appealing is that it has no challenger to be liberal on neoliberal economic and social settlement of the Margaret Thatcher and Reaganomics years that have fundamentally affected the way the will economy particularly in the West works and that society is more individualistic.


Nussbaum c. Martha, Sex and Social Justice, published in 1999 by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Locke John, The Second Treatise of Government, ( An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent of End of Civil Government) And A Letter Concerning Toleration, Edited with a revised Introduction by J. W. GOUGH, Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford, Published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD MCMLXVI

Rawls John, A THEORY OF JUSTICE AND ITS CRITICS, Chandran Kukaths and Philip Pettit, First published 1990 by Polity Press



Smith Adam, Wealth of Nations ( An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations A selected Edition ) Edited with an Introduction and notes by KATHRYN SUTHERLAND PUBLISHED BY OXFORD UNIVERTITY PRESS

Hayek A. F The Road to Serfdom, first published in 1944 reprinted 2008, printed by ROUTLEDGE CLASSICS London and New York magnacarta (1215) to Henry IV (1399)

Hennessy Peter, THE PRIME MINISTER THE OFFICE AND ITS HOLDERS SINCE 1945, published by PENGUIN BOOKS with new material in 2001

[1] Page 3 3 Sex and Social Justice, published in 1999 by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, written by Martha C. Nussbaum

[2] Sex and Social Justice, published in 1999 by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, written by Martha C. Nussbaum

[3] Page 5 Sex and Social Justice, published in 1999 by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, written by Martha C. Nussbaum

[4] Page 13 ON LIBERTY and CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT by John Stuart Mill, Edited with an Introduction by R. B McCALLUM published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD 1948

[5] Page XXVIII The Second Treatise of Government written by John Locke , ( An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent of End of Civil Government) And A Letter Concerning Toleration, Edited with a revised Introduction by J. W. GOUGH, Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford, Published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD MCMLXVI

[6] Page 75 John Rawls, A THEORY OF JUSTICE AND ITS CRITICS, Chandran Kukaths and Philip Pettit, First published 1990 by Polity Press

[7] Page 110 ON LIBERTY and CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT by John Stuart Mill, Edited with an Introduction by R. B McCALLUM published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD 1948

[8] page 117 and 118 ON LIBERTY and CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT by John Stuart Mill, Edited with an Introduction by R. B McCALLUM published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD 1948

[9] Page 23 ON LIBERTY and CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT by John Stuart Mill, Edited with an Introduction by R. B McCALLUM published by BASIL BLACKWELL OXFORD 1948

[10] Page 4 Sex and Social Justice, published in 1999 by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, written by Martha C. Nussbaum

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How to do blog posts page

On this page, you will find my relevant blog posts related to how to do such as how to write a successful CV and how to best ace the job interview process. In this section you will also find techniques and resources which can be used to do digital marketing, blogging and podcasting you will also find on this page the most popular blog posts that are relevant on how to do various tasks.

I hope you find the information in my links above useful and meet your needs please leave comments and let me know on my social media if you would like any more information on any of the topics above.

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Cover Letter Template

This Blogg aims to give an understanding of what should be in your cover letter also remember to read the job description and if employers request certain characteristics and abilities from yourselves remember to include them in your cover letter.

Jonathan Stephan Harry Riley (Your Name)

Your Email

Your Phone Number

Your Address

Your Social Media as long as it’s appropriate

your website or podcast if you have one

Dear (name of the person who will be interviewing you if you do not know the person’s name use dear Sir or Madam), I am writing to you having seen the position of Editorial Assistant on the Cambridge University website which states you are looking for an outgoing individual who is interested in developing skills the ability to do copywriting tasks and assist with publishing. My interest in Editorial Assistant springs from me wanting to do work and pursue a career in a field with job progression and development as well as offers a personal satisfaction that what I’m doing will build up my skill and can make a real difference in academia.

My previous and current work experience mainly comes from sales in a face-to-face role this comes from my experience working as a door-to-door salesman and a Market Stall Assistant and Manager in these roles require me to have confidence and communicate fluently with customers. I occupied the role of the market stall assistant for eight years whilst I was studying at University and College and I’m currently employed as a Test and Trace Tear 3 call handler and also as a Tier 2 support as well. This role requires me to speak to peoples from different ethnic backgrounds and different communities throughout England which means I have to be clear and concise and understanding due to contacting people who are greatly distressed due to having contracted COVID or facing deep personal troubles.

During my time in education, my highest honour is a Bachelor’s degree in Politics and International Relations which is part of the social sciences, political science and international relations field of study. From my time at college I graduated with A government politics, B Religious Studies and a B in History, C in GCSE Maths and during my time at high school I got a B History, B in English, A in Religious Studies and two passes in Public Services and Science in BETECS. My other educational attainment is in my online courses part of the Lead Academy I earned myself a level 5 in Professional Digital Marketing which involves using Social Media and plug-ins to sell products as well as providing a comprehensive understanding of Google Analytics also pass a course in Copywriting which is sales by print to create an engaging and meaningful copy. This concludes my educational attainment I’m quite proud to be achieved considering my background and not entering mainstream education until the age of 14 due to my undiagnosed dyslexia and several failures in the school system. This is one of the reasons I am passionate about education and personal development because knowledge is like a house it must be built brick by brick with solid foundations which no matter how old you are can be built as long as you are willing and able.

My interests and hobbies are copywriting and developing my Blog and creating my Podcast my interest also apply to my field of work depending on the nature of the profession and whether or not continual development of knowledge is necessary. I am also willing and enthusiastic to continue to expand and develop skills through in-work training, audiobooks and other media and information platforms.

Overall, my interest in this role is because I enjoy the subject matter and I also enjoy the possibility of developing a skill that I can use in the workplace and further develop my career. I also like the fact that I will be helping academics in their publishing and being part of the process of academia.

Thank you for your time hope to hear from you soon yours sincerely Jonathan Riley (Your Name)

Hop this helps you when creating your Cover Letter

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CV template

The aim of this blog is provided with a template with what your CVs should look like I am also going to provide links to my previous blogs on CV and cover letter creation.

Jonathan Stephan Harry Riley

your address

your email

your social media preferably LinkedIn or professional Facebook page

your contact numbers


I have seen the position of Editorial Assistant working for Cambridge University press stationed in at Cambridge or Remote working for the 12 months fixed term publishing content primarily on Psychology. I’m very interested in the role because I have a passion and a personal interest in Psychology and political thought due to my time at university and readings of thinkers like Jordan Peterson and Robert Green’s 48 Rules of Power.

Work History

CONCENTRIX- This is an American business services company my current role and responsibility is as a Tier 3 Covid-19 track and trace phone operator my responsibility is to contact people that may have Covid-19 and to advise the public what to do by following the information provided to me by National Health England.

Oriflame Cosmetics- Oriflame is a cosmetic Swedish company started in 1967 my current role is working as a Digital Marketing and Sales Assistant which involves me using social media to sell cosmetic products. I am also responsible for delivering and collecting orders for Oriflame products. Furthermore, I’m also developing skills to promote myself, promote other people and promote the product. I am also developing Copywriting, Recrement and Marketing Skills. Reasons for wanting to leave this role is a pyramid scheme which I was not aware of when I first joined.

Akribeia- Marketing and sales company which is currently contracted to work for Octopus Energies. The former role is to work as a Sales Representative and Ambassador for Octopus energy where I have talked to between 90 and 120 households per weekday.

Market stall owner-name of employer

Market stall Assistant: gave me the responsibility of selling and assisting customers to select and buy goods. This work also enabled me to develop negotiation skills and skills of tact and diplomacy while dealing with customers.

Market stall manager: was the responsibility given to me when I was left in charge of the running of the Market Stall.


Purstone E-ACT ACADEMY – Pontefract GCSE: 2014: English B, Science Pass, Maths C, History B, R religious Education B, Public Services Pass

New College Pontefract: Government and Politics A, History B, Religious Studies B

Hull University – City of Hull Politics and International Relations degree 2:2

Lead Academy- Copywriting – Write Persuasive Copy and awarded this certificate on 15 February 2021 Certificate Code: 68623-146980-57667

Lead Academy- Copywriting Secrets and awarded this certificate on 19 February 2021 Certificate Code: 68623-146881-57667

Professional Digital Marketing at QLS Level 5 and awarded this certificate on 13 March, 2021 Certificate Code: 68623-80009-57667


  • Basic computer skills
  • Good communication skills
  • Good team member and worker
  • Can negotiate with customers
  • Excellent research skills
  • Self-motivated
  • Strong verbal communication
  • Extremely organised
  • Data management
  • Speak English
  • Sales skills
  • Social media
  • Search Engine Optimisation skills
  • Writing skills
  • Digital Marketing skills
  • WordPress
  • Article Writing
  • Canva 
  • Podcasting
  • Audio Work
  • I am severely dyslexic and because of my learning difficulty, I had to become familiar with computers and various software programmes which enable me to write essays and dissertations without assistance. I am extremely proficient with software such as “Dragon 15” and “Read and Write”. This can be seen in this CV which I have dictated to using the type of software I have mentioned.

Personal Interests

•            Reading – fiction, history, philosophy, self-improvement, gaming-Total War series and Crusader Kings series

•            Personal development

•            Audiobooks

•            Cycling

•            Watching Podcasts-Joe Rogan 

•            Blogging on my Website-

•            Podcasting on my Website


Putt the names of your contacts including their email and phone number also remember to ask their permission for the references whether they be academic or from previous workplaces

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A review on George RR Martin’s Historical Fantasy Game of Thrones TV series adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire Book series

The series Game of thrones which ran for eight series began its production and development in 2009/2010 and filmed its last series in 2019 the show also won one Golden Globe Awards, Primetime Emmy Award 49, Screen Actors Guild Awards 5. You can see during its time on screen it was the number one television show in TV history also equalled and surpassed the mania of who shot JR when it came to the character John Snow’s tragic death at the end of season five which left Kip Harrington telling people for a year that his character John Snow is dead. Whilst reading this I may give out some spoilers and plotlines just to warn you whilst you are reading this that you have been warned if you have not seen the TV series.

I would argue that as far as adaptations and developing a series the developers’ & showrunners David Benioff & D.B. Weiss did an excellent job of creating a fantasy version of the Wars of the Roses inspired by George RR Martin’s much-beloved fantasy series a Song of Ice and Fire. Historian Dan Jones says that George RR Martin has created the perfect representation of the Wars of the Roses only adding a fantasy element and placing historical characters from English history into a high fantasy setting. This can be seen in Robert Baratheon representing an old Edward IV of England and Robb Stark representing a young version of King Edward after the battle of Towton 1461 which left 28,000 men dead on the battlefield. Similar events happen before the start of Game of Thrones where a young King Robert seizes the iron Throne and kills Prince Rhaegar Targaryen during the epic battle of the Trident.

Now back to the main plot of the TV series the strongest series of Game of Thrones would have to be the first four series with season one as the lead actor being Sean Bean famous for his roles in the Lord of the rings trilogy and playing Richard Sharp in the TV series Sharpe. The first season also started a precedent where TV shows killed off main characters to create suspense and drama this can be seen in episode Baelor and episode nine series 3 during the Red Wedding. I will not go into too much detail about the TV series because I don’t wish to spoil it for you should you wish to enter this fantastic world of fantasy mixed with a sense of realism that doesn’t exist in series like watercraft or Warhammer.

The biggest weakness of the series I would argue is that David Benioff and D. B. Weiss cut out the characters of Arianna Martell and Young Griff significance of these two characters is Young Griff is believed to be the son of the deceased Prince Rhaegar Targaryen killed at the Trident and Princess Elia Martell. The other character is Arianna Martell who is introduced to the book series reinvigorated and provided the books with a soft reboot due to the character deaths. Arianna Martell also provides a strong and young female role model. One of the great things about George RR Martin’s characters that are represented in the books and TV show is that they are flawed human beings for instance and Arianna Martell when she was a young girl used to wish to be beautiful. George Martin and the showrunners successfully created characters that are incredibly human and motivations no matter how flawed could be understood. I would say the biggest weakness in the show is cutting out these two characters and creating a big enemy the White Walkers which was resolved in a single episode during the final series. This created a sense of pointlessness having built the series towards the epic conclusion with the living versus the ice zombies which in the end I found this particular story arc unfulfilling which in the contrast the political and fighting over the Iron Throne of Westeros was a much better story than having Ice zombies as the big enemy.

What the showrunners did was created great villains with the characters Cersei Lannister and Jamie Lannister who committed incest and adultery which sparked a great civil war that nearly destroyed the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros. What made these characters so sympathetic was that Cersei was beaten and abused by her husband King Robert Baratheon and Jamie Lannister who started the first series nearly killing the younger son and the 10-year-old Brandon Stark due to catching the Lannister twins engaged in an act of carnal incest. What made the character development of Cersei and Jaime so authentic was that in a twisted sort of sense those two people were incredibly relatable due to being flawed human beings which made the Lannister twins a favourite of the series.

Hop you enjoyed this blog please leave a review


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Podcasts you can create during your spare time

There are six kinds of podcasts that you can create alongside your full-time job and taking care of your family. These podcasts and productions are solo-podcasts, experimental and investigation podcasts, interview podcasts, solo podcasts, historical podcasts and review podcasts. Through this blog, I will explain to you the features and benefits of these podcasts.

Solo podcasts

The name solo podcasts mean exactly what it means that is just yourself, with a computer and microphone speaking about various topics it could be news or any subject. The benefit of Solo podcasts is that it just requires you to create your content and publish that content on services such as Anchor.

experimental and investigation podcasts

investigational podcasts will require you to do a lot more work and a lot more fact-checking this could take you a few months or a few weeks depending on the time you allocate to conducting your research. For instance, if you’re looking at a crime investigation or unresolved mysteries you want to make sure you get your facts and information correct your reputation as a podcaster and producer will be on the line. Always remember your content and its quality will reflect on yourselves so be mindful to be factual and remember the difference between facts and opinions because it seems to me that people must understand that life experiences do not necessarily mean that they are factual and correct.

Multi-Host Podcasts

Offers viewpoints from different people due to being hosted by more than one person interview podcasts self-explanatory just think Joe Rogan experience

Historical Podcasts

You can find many historical podcasts on YouTube if want to have a quick look at HistoryMarch gives a good demonstration of what kind of content you can create in 30 minute or 15-minute snippets of information.

Interview Podcasts

Interview podcasts will be the easiest podcasts you can create due to you not having to create your content you will only need some notes on the questions you wish to ask the interviewer. It’s also important that the person who’s been interviewed understand why they are there and the nature of the interview. One of the benefits of podcasting is that interviews can be very in-depth and personal it all depends on what sort of relationship the interviewer and the person being interviewed wants to develop.

Review and how to do on your Podcasts

By doing reviews of products on your Podcast it has the benefits of being very simple because you can start with the product that uses in your day-to-day life such as office chairs, computers and other electric devices you can also look at features and benefits of other items you may use in your day-to-day life. I would also recommend that any products that you review they also review products from their competitors that way you make your product reviews more professional.

I have placed my Amazon affiliate link below if you are interested in reading about producing a podcast


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Why read Robert Greene’s 48 laws of power and his guide to success by gaining more power

who is Robert Green and why is he’s controversial?

Robert Green is an American author who shot to fame in his first published book 48 Laws of Power which catapulted him to fame and success you may be wondering why Robert Green is controversial due to his Book 48 Laws of Power which are incredibly controversial because of its Machiavellian tone in his writing material. What sets Robert Green apart in his writing material is that he uses historical people for example how men like Napoleon Bonaparte, Genghis Khan and King Henry VIII England use power to manipulate and control and gain more power for themselves. We can look at someone like Joseph Fouché who was a spymaster for Napoleon Bonaparte and the previous Republican government to show how a man can manipulate and gain power Joseph Foiche, was also the man who cast the final vote, to execute Louis XVI of France he was also still able to remain in power and become even more powerful under the rain of Louis XVI brother Louis XVIII of France.

What does Robert Green teach or I would argue enlighten?

To fully appreciate the wisdom and knowledge of Robert Green you must be prepared to understand and accept the darker nature of humanity, people no matter their station will seek to gain more power there are many kinds of power there is financial power, social power and the power to control and manipulate. I will give you an example of a colleague of mine who try to get promoted having been promised a promotion but was denied the role due to a new manager being brought in you may be wondering why would this prevent someone from being promoted and going to explain this now. The reason why this individual was not promoted was that when the new manager arrived at the company, she showed the manager how to perform her tasks properly and efficiently by doing this she scared the new manager because they will become fearful of keeping their position. I can give another personal example from my own life during my final year at university I lived with two women one hated the other for being more beautiful and outgoing this created friction. Hopefully by giving these examples show it is not just the powerful but the ordinary who try to gain or destroy other people’s credibility and position and that we all on some level trying to gain more power and success. What Robert Green does best is open people’s eyes to the true nature of humanity and that to have any kind of prosperity you will require more power, it’s an important note to make that those with power are insecure in their position for example of Louis XIV’s finance minister Nicolas Fouquet who spent 20 years in jail for making Louis XIV feel less significant there may be no longer any Sun Kings but this personality still exists. Robert Green stresses is important not to make those above you too uncomfortable or unsafe in their position it is important not to threaten their insecurities because Robert Green makes the argument that those in power can be the most insecure.

Do not jump to conclusions of people who are slow to anger or you might be dealing with Genghis Khan

Robert Green makes the excellent argument that we should not judge a book by its cover and that just because somebody does not become angry or react violently to your insult whether it be perceived as real this does not mean this person will not seek to destroy you. Green uses the historical example of Shah Ala ad-Din Muhammad and the destruction Khwarazmian Empire this historical scenario is where Genghis Khan calm demeanour to the deaths of his envoys led Shah Mohammed to perceive Genghis Khan as a weak individual which was gravely mistaken as his Empire was destroyed and his people annihilated. Mr Green stressed the importance of remaining calm and collective to avoid destruction and disaster, he also stresses the importance of creating a fake personality to show the world that way nothing can get under your skin and cause you to lose self-control. An example of this can be inferred in the personalities and public personas of Prime Minister Boris Johnson and ex-president of the United States Donald Trump both men have the persona of the fool but have the intelligence capabilities capable and powerful men, it’s foolish to underestimate individuals of their calibre and ambition. In other words, what you see is not necessarily real due to humans evolving in a way where we judge people by appearances and demeanour, we fail to realise and understand that a person’s personality and motivations are unknowable because on some level whether at work or home we are all unknowable to those around us.


If you wish to gain true enlightenment about yourself, about your colleagues and about your loved ones I would recommend reading this book to master and gain control of your life by understanding and practising these 48 laws of power. Be forewarned once you open your eyes to the nature of the power, you’ll never be able to be blind again there is a price for enlightenment once you truly understand the world and the people in it you will never be able to be blind and ignorant again. This can be a blessing and a great burden because to be wise is to be burdened and to be a fool is to live in peace but the consequence would be that you will lack real power in yourself and your life.

Link to my Blog on Jordan Peterson you my also find enlightening

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The Snowflake Generation who they are and why are millennials melting under pressure of modern live

What is a Snowflake

There are three kinds of snowflakes there is the traditional Snowflake, which is a snowflake from snow but you want to know what a political and cultural Snowflake is, the cultural Snowflake tends to be someone from a sheltered, politically left-wing background but I would argue anyone can become a snowflake cultural ideology does not decide whether someone is a snowflake. The other kind of Snowflake can be someone who lacks a backbone or has a personality that has been crippled or stifled by their parents or society and the environment they grow up in.

Is Snowflake-ism caused by divorce rates

Some people believe that the cause of an individual becoming a snowflake is due to the rise of divorce rates from the 1960s to mid-2000’s in the 1960s in 1961 27,000 people got divorced and by 2005 divorce rates rose 167,000 a year. The reason why this can be seen as a cause of men and women becoming more fragile is due to the decline of masculine role models due to a family breaking apart. The millionaire and entrepreneur Dan Pena make the argument that the client of masculinity and masculine role models is leaving young men broken and without strong leadership.

What does it mean to be a man?

This is one of the hardest questions facing young men of our generation having no direction and being aimless either due to modern life being too easy in certain respects we no longer have to hunt for food or faced the possibility of dying in our mid-40s. However, we live in a world of social media and hashtags which gives the brain and gives the endorphins which releases a chemical creating joy because our brain is wired for every town, we have liked these endorphins are released which creates an addiction this happens in computer games, social media and pornography. By becoming addicted to social media and appliances that have no real meaning we can live a life of non-meaningfulness which leaves to an empty and sad life.

My links to 2 previous posts on John Peterson and Dr Deborah so you might find interesting I’ve also included links to some statistical information.

Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment : Monthly Labor Review: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (

Essay about Reasons for the Changes in Divorce Rates in the 1960’s – 580 Words (